The cover of Carfree Cities


Adam, Robert
Classical Architecture: A Comprehensive Handbook to the Tradition of Classical Style
[pub data not at hand]
Wonderful explanation of the classical styles, beautifully illustrated. Appears to have been remaindered from $60.00 to $20.00. Probably available from Highly recommended.

Alberti, Leon Battista
On the Art of Building in Ten Books
(Cambridge: MIT Press, 1988)

Alexander, Christopher et al.
A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1977)
A groundbreaking work magnificently prepared by Oxford. In my opinion the most important book on architecture and planning in the 20th century.

Alexander, Christopher
The Nature of Order
Book One: The Phenomenon of Life
(Berkeley: The Center for Environmental Structure, 2002, released 2004 )
In some ways this is an updated version of The Timeless Way of Building, but it is a much bigger book and approaches the subject in a way that is somewhat more useful than the "nameless quality" referred to in the earlier work. Reviewed in Carfree Times #37.

Alexander, Christopher
The Nature of Order
Book Two: The Process of Creating Life
(Berkeley: The Center for Environmental Structure, 2002, released 2004 )
Reviewed in Carfree Times #38.

Alexander, Christopher
The Nature of Order
Book Three: A Vision of the Living World
Probably the most useful of the four books of The Nature of Order. (Berkeley: The Center for Environmental Structure, 2002, released 2005 )
Reviewed in Carfree Times #39.

Alexander, Christopher
The Nature of Order
Book Four: The Luminous Ground
(Berkeley: The Center for Environmental Structure, 2004
Briefly mentioned in Carfree Times #39.

Alexander, Christopher et al.
A New Theory of Urban Design
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)
This book describes an organic approach to urban development. A group of students under his direction redeveloped the area at the foot of the Bay Bridge in San Francisco, in maquette. The technique is really a return to the centuries-old practices of urban development. Very interesting; this technique should be applied in the development of any large new area, including the car-free city.

Alexander, Christopher et al.
The Timeless Way of Building
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1979)
The first book in the long series by Alexander. I find this one rather obtuse. It lays out the basic theoretical framework for all of Alexander's work.

Alexander, Christopher et al.
The Production of Houses
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1985)
Outlines a method for producing unique houses, designed by their owners, at costs not exceeding those for comparable mass-produced houses.

Ambrose, Stephen E.
Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built
the Transcontinental Railroad

(Simon & Schuster, 2000)
Good general work on the Pacific Railroad, of intermediate length. Reviewed in Carfree Times #20.

Alvord, Katie
Divorce Your Car! Ending the Love Affair with the Automobile
(Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society Publishers, 2000)
A history of our marriage to the car and the reasons for seeking a divorce. Concludes with practical suggestions for reducing or eliminating car use. Briefly reviewed in Carfree Times #16.

Appleyard, Donald
Livable Streets
(Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981)
This is the definitive work describing the effects of traffic on community life. Essential reading. Sadly, Appleyard was killed in a car crash in Athens.

Anderson, Stanford (Ed.)
On Streets
(Cambridge: MIT Press, 1986)
Essays on streets as public spaces. Not yet reviewed but appears excellent.

Argan, Giulio C.
The Renaissance City
[pub data not available]

Atelier de Recherche et d'Action Urbaines Bruxelles
La Ville Sans Voiture
(Brussels: ARAU, probably 2000)
I would greatly appreciate having a synopsis of this book from a French reader.

Bacher, John
(Science for Peace, Dundurn Press, 2000)
Fascinating examination of the role of oil royalties in supporting dictators in the oil states. Reviewed in Carfree Times #22.

Bacon, Edmund N.
Design of Cities
(New York: Penguin Books, revised edition, 1974)
An interesting look at the urban form from ancient to modern times. The drawing of Michelangelo's renovation of the Capitoline Hill is as brilliant as Michelangelo's work on this wonderful square. Poorly printed - deserves a new printing.

Bain, David Haward
Empire Express: Building the First Transcontinental Railroad
(Viking, 1999)
Exhaustive examination of the Pacific Railroad with much new research. Very long but lacks good historical analysis; for those who know the big picture but want every last detail. Reviewed in Carfree Times #20.

Balish, Chris
How to Live Well without Owning a Car
(Ten Speed Press, 2006)
How to save money, breathe easier, and get more out of life.

Beatley, Timothy
Green Urbanism: Learning from European Cities
(Washington: Island Press, 2000)
Beatley uses European urban planning examples to show American planners what can be learned from the sustainable cities movement in Europe. Some 25 cities are cited as examples for changing North American development patterns to a more sustainable model.

Berger, K.T. (this is actually two people with the same last name)
Where the Road and the Sky Collide:
America Through the Eyes of Its Drivers

(New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1993)
How autotopia became a dystopia.

Bergeron, Richard
Le livre noir de l'automobile: Exploration du rapport malsain de l'homme contemporain à l'automobile
(Les Éditions Hypothèse, 1999)

Bergeron, Richard
Les Québécois au volant c'est mortel
(Les Éditions des Intouchables, 2005)

Bernick, Michael and Robert Cervero
Transit Villages in the 21st Century
(New York: McGraw-Hill, 1996)
Cervero is associated with the transit village concept, and this book should be his definitive study; not yet reviewed.

Blanchard, Martin, and Christian Nadeau
Cul-de-sac: L'impasse de la voiture en milieu urbain
(Heliotrope: France, 2007)
Considers the moral aspects of automobility.

Blechman, Andrew D.
Leisureville: Adventures in America's Retirement Utopias
(Atlantic Monthly Press, 2008)
An assessment of age-segregated communities in the USA, some of which use golf carts to provide personal mobility.

Brand, Stewart
How Buildings Learn: What Happens After They’re Built
(New York: Penguin Books, 1994)

Brown, A. Duncan
Feed or Feedback: Agriculture, Population Dynamics
and the State of the Planet

(International Books, 2003)
How to continue to feed the planet despite the coming resource shortages.

Brown, Lester R.
Eco-Economy: Building an Economy for the Earth
(W.W. Norton, 2001)
Brown is a pioneer in the environmental movement, and this book is a summation of his life's work. Written for a general audience, the book reviews mankind's difficult relationship with the natural systems that sustain us, then considers how we must change to in order to protect theses systems, and finally proposes methods to implement these changes in time to avert disaster.

Callenbach, Ernest
Ecotopia: The Notebooks and Reports of William Weston
(Banyan Tree Books, 1975, frequently reprinted)
Futurist novel about an ecological society on the West Coast of the USA.

Callenbach, Ernest
Ecotopia Emerging
(Berkeley: Banyan Tree Books, 1981)
Prequel to the novel above. Suggests how the society portrayed in the earlier book might have been attained.

Calthorpe, Peter
The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community,
and the American Dream

(Princeton Architectural Press, 1993)
Peter Calthorpe is in the vanguard of the New Urbanism, and this book is his expression of those ideas. The first part is the theory of NU and the second shows many project examples, many of which have yet to be built. Nicely designed and printed with many full-color illustrations.

Campbell, C.J. et al
The Coming Oil Crisis
(Multi-Science Publishing Co., 1997)

Campoli, Julie, and Alex S. MacLean
Visualizing Density
(Cambridge: Lincoln Institute of Land Policy, 2007)

Ching, Francis D.K.
Architecture: Form, Space & Order
(New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1979)
Ching can draw like nobody else. This is a beautiful explication of the logic underlying a variety of urban and architectural forms. All illustrations are drawn by hand and the text is handwritten. Ching's lettering is so good that it has been adopted in the form of Adobe's Tekton font. Try to get a hardbound copy; my paperback started to fall apart in about 10 years. Ching's other books are also excellent but are relevant to building design and construction and not to urban planning.

Ching, Francis D.K.
Building Construction Illustrated
(New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1975)

Cole, Emily (Ed.)
The Grammar of Architecture
(Bullfinch Press, Little Brown and Company, 2002)
A beautifully prepared book that examines the elements of architecture and the various ways in which they have been assembled through the ages.

Condon, Patrick
Design Charrettes for Sustainable Communities
(Island Press, 2007)

Crawford, J.H.
Carfree Cities
(Utrecht: International Books, 2000)
(Utrecht: International Books, 2002, paperback edition)
The book that goes with this web site. Presents the reference design for carfree cities. Includes a detailed analysis of the effects of modern urban automobile usage on the quality of life. Considers how the principles of the reference design can be applied in real-world cities. Hardcover, richly illustrated. For more information, including how to order, visit the Carfree Cities pages.

Crawford, J.H.
Carfree Design Manual
(Utrecht: International Books, 2009)
Expands on the ideas first developed in Carfree Cities. Proposes a return to medieval urban forms. Gives suggested methods for "instant evolution" of city districts that are high adapted to the needs of the users. Proposes the design of urban areas by their users. Contains nearly 1000 illustrations. For more information, visit the Carfree Design Manual pages.

Crowhurst Lennard, Suzanne H., Sven von Ungern-Sternberg
and Henry L. Lennard, Eds.
Making Cities Livable
(Carmel, CA: International Making Cities Livable Conferences, 1997)
Proceedings from a 1995 conference, one of a long series by the same name. Good source book on cities in general, with some specifies on carfree area.

Delfante, Charles
A Grande História da Cidade
(Lisbon: Instituto Piaget, 1997)
Translation of Grande Histoire de la Ville

Dennis, Kingsley and John Urry
After the Car
(Cambridge (UK): Polity, 2009)

Dittmar, Hank & Gloria Ohland (Eds.)
The New Transit Town Best Practices in Transit-Oriented Development
(Island Press, 2004)
Compendium of articles on current TOD practice.

Droege, John A.
Passenger Terminals and Trains
(Milwaukee: Kalmbach Publishing Co., 1969 reprint of the original McGraw-Hill edition)
Fascinating, technical examination of rail passenger service in 1916, pretty much the apex of passenger service in the USA. Oddly, it's more useful today as social history, as the technical aspects of rail operations changed utterly with the disappearance of steam.

Dauncey, Guy with Patrick Mazza
Stormy Weather: 101 Solutions to Global Climate Change
(Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society Publishing, 2001)
Includes Carfree Sundays as one of the tactics; not yet reviewed.

Delfante, Charles
A Grande Históia da Cidade: Da Mesopotâmia aos Estados Unidos
(Lisbon: Instituto Piaget, 1997)
Portuguese translation of Grande Histoire de la Ville.
Chiefly interesting for its large collection of street plans.

Duany, Andres, Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk, and Jeff Speck
Suburban Nation: The Rise of Sprawl and
the Decline of the American Dream

(New York: North Point Press, 2000) Several of the leading lights of the New Urbanism tackle the question of how the USA came to look the way it does, the effects this has had on daily life, and a consideration of how to fix the mess. This book is an interesting companion to my own Carfree Cities, not only because of the striking physical similarities (size and layout) but because the remedies proposed have a number of similarities with my own proposals, yet the overall approach to solving the problem is very different. Briefly reviewed in Carfree Times #16.

Durning, Alan Thein
The Car and the City
(Seattle: Northwest Environment Watch, 1996)
A slim volume that examines the problems caused by urban cars and proposes some solutions.

Efroymson, Debra
Beyond Apologies: Defining and Achieving an Economics of Wellbeing
(The Institute of Wellbeing, 2015)

Efroymson, Debra
Addressing Climate Change: Can We Reduce Carbon Emissions While Increasing Quality of Life?
(WBB Trust and Health Bridge, 2011)

Efroymson, Debra, Roxana Hafiz, and Lori Jones (eds.)
Ecocity Planning: Images and Ideas
(WBB Trust and Health Bridge, 2008)

Efroymson, Debra, Mauf Rahman, and Ruhan Shama
Liveable Cities: Ideas and Action
(WBB Trust and Health Bridge, 2009)
116 pages

Efroymson, Debra, Tran Thi Kieu Thanh Ha, Pham Thu Ha
Public Spaces: How They Humanize Cities
(WBB Trust and Health Bridge, 2009)
167 pages

English Partnerships
Urban Design Compendium
(English Partnerships, August 2000)
Wonderful, well-illustrated guide to pedestrian-oriented urban planning. Reviewed in Carfree Times #23

Engwicht, David
Reclaiming our Cities & Towns: Better Living with Less Traffic
(Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1993)

Engwicht, David
Street Reclaiming: Creating Livable Streets and Vibrant Communities
(Gabriola Island, BC, Canada: New Society Publishers, 1999)
How to reclaim streets in your own neighborhood. Reviewed in Carfree Times #19

Fathy, Hassan
Architecture for the Poor
(Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969, 1973)
An excellent account of an attempt, ultimately foiled by the government which had initiated it, to use traditional forms and methods to develop new communities for Egypt's growing population. The illustrations of the work show the simple brilliance of the indigenous forms and the practicality of mud construction in the desert.

Fletcher, Banister
A History of Architecture: On the Comparative Method
Many editions since 1896. An authoritative history of architecture, brilliantly illustrated. Available used for as little as $10.00, a huge bargain.

Flint, Anthony
This Land: The Battle over Sprawl and the Future of America
(Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2006)

Fouchier, Vincent
"Mesuring [sic] the Density: But Which Density??"
(Paper presented at the Norwegian Ministry of Environment, Workshop on “Density and Green Structure,” Oslo, 25-27 January 1996)

Fouchier, Vincent
Les densités urbaines et le développement durable.
Le cas de l’Île-de-France et des villes nouvelles

(Edition du SGVN, Secretariat General du Groupe Central des Ville Nouvelles, 1997).
Fouchier has studied density in the Paris region and the relationships among density, transport, and energy use.

Fowler, Edmund P.
Building Cities That Work
(Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 1992)
Examines postwar failures in city building and analyzes the problems. Good examination of economic costs in particular.

Freund, Peter and George Martin
The Ecology of the Automobile
(Montréal: Black Rose Books, 1993)
Takes a broad look at the phenomenon of the automobile, including psychological and social factors.

Fry, Tony
A New Design Philosophy: An Introduction to Defuturing
(University of New South Wales Press, 1999)
Reviewed in Carfree Times #28. A consideration of the relationship between philosophy and design.

Galloway, John Debo
The First Transcontinental Railroad: Central Pacific, Union Pacific
(Dorset Press, 1989, reprint of much earlier edition)
An engineer's book on the Transcontinental railroad. Flawed but has material missing from some of the other accounts. Not recommended as a first book on the subject.

Gatto, John Taylor
Dumbing Us Down: The Hidden Curriculum of Compulsory Schooling
(Gabriola Island, B.C.: New Society Publishers, 1992)

Gehl, Jan and Lars Gemzøe
Public Spaces - Public Life
(Copenhagen: The Danish Architectural Press and the Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture Publishers, 1996)

Gehl, Jan
Life Between Buildings: Using Public Space
(New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, English edition: 1987,
first published 1971)
Shows how physical planning greatly influences our daily outdoor activities. Reviewed in Carfree Times #17.

de Geus, Marius
Ecological Utopias: Envisioning the Sustainable Society
(Utrecht: International Books, 1999)
A detailed examination of the history of ecological utopias and their relevance to the modern condition.

de Geus, Marius
The End of Over-consumption: Towards a Lifestyle of Moderation
and Self-restraint

(International Books, 2003)
This book examines the norms, values, and beliefs that contribute to modern environmental problems. The author contends that individuals must simplify their lives and show self-restraint to avoid wasting the Earth's resources. Governments must translate moderation and limitation into effective policy measures and adapt economic, social, and political institutions accordingly.

Girling, Cynthia and Ronald Kellett
Skinny Streets and Green Neighborhoods: Design for Environment and Community
(Island Press, 2005)

Glover, Paul
Los Angeles: A History of the Future
(, 1982, rev. 2012)

Goddard, Stephen B.
Getting There: The Epic Struggle between Road and Rail
in the American Century

([no place given] Basic Books, 1994)
This is an excellent scholarly work, clearly written, describing the death of rail at the hands of the Road Gang. Goddard is a lawyer, so there is some emphasis on the legal aspects. Includes an interesting discussion of how the road interests, led by GM, broke the law in their efforts to destroy rail passenger transport and how they pretty much got away with it. The discussion of how the rail industry came to be in such bad odor with Washington and the public offers a lesson for monopolists in all places and times. Capsule review in Carfree Times #8.

Gold, Thomas
Power from the Earth: Deep Earth Gas - Energy for the Future.
(London: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd, 1987)
Presents an extraordinary new hypothesis that gas and oil were not formed solely by the entrapment and decay of organic material but rather are the result of a continuous outgassing of the Earth. Gold's hypothesis explains a considerable number of heretofore inexplicable phenomena. Controversial but worth study. Gold thinks we may be able to tap fairly large supplies of deep gas. This still doesn't solve the greenhouse problems with CO2 emissions, even if the gas is there.

Goy, Richard J.
Venetian Vernacular Architecture: Traditional housing in the Venetian Lagoon
(Cambridge University Press)
Discusses both the structure and design of vernacular architecture in Venice. An excellent treatment, but the 2010 facsimile edition is poorly printed. The 1989 first edition is very difficult to find and expensive.

Gruen, Victor
The Heart of Our Cities
(New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964)
Gruen seems to have been a misunderstood figure. He invented the shopping center in an effort to restore the social functions of streets. While his invention led to a large increase in car traffic, it is apparent that by the 1950s, he was already painfully aware of the damage cars were doing to cities. Some of the plans shown in this book are a response to the general problem of the car, and can in some ways be considered a precursor to the carfree city, even though the car is still present on the streets. Readily available used.

Hale, Jonathan
The Old Way of Seeing:
How Architecture Lost Its Magic (And How to Get It Back)

(Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1994)
Brilliant if tentative look at how modern civilization lost a gift that was once nearly universal: the ability to design beautiful things. Desperately needs further followup.

Hall, Peter
Cities of Tomorrow: An Intellectual History of Urban Planning and Design in the Twentieth Century
(Oxford: Blackwell, 1988)
The definitive history of modern urban planning. Although it only claims to cover the 20th century, it in fact dips back into the late 19th century. Brief review in Carfree Times #8.

Hillier, Bill
Space Is the Machine: A Configurational Theory of Architecture
(Cambridge University Press, 1996)
This book by a British architecture professor proceeds from the idea that the urban street pattern is a "mechanism for generating contact." Reviewed in Carfree Times #27.

Hopkins, Rob
The Transition Handbook: From Oil Dependency to Local Resilience
(White River Junction, VT: Chelsea Green, 2008)

Institute for Community Economics
The Community Land Trust Handbook
(Emmaus, PA: Rodale Press, 1982)
The community land trust is a vehicle for preserving open space and providing tax relief to farmers. This book is a complete manual on how to set up a community land trust. Aimed at the USA but the principles should be applicable elsewhere. A potent weapon in the war against sprawl.

Jacobs, Allan B.
Great Streets
(Cambridge: MIT Press, 1995)
Beautiful book describing and discussing great streets and why they work. Full of gorgeous drawings, with dimensions. Capsule review in Carfree Times #8.

Jacobs, Allan B., Elizabeth Macdonald, and Yodan Rofé
The Boulevard Book: History, Evolution, Design of Multiway Boulevards
(Cambridge: MIT Press, 2002)

Jacobs, Jane
The Death and Life of Great American Cities
(New York: Vantage Books, 1992, first published 1961)
A highly critical look at how misguided urban planning destroyed many American city centers in the 1950s. Excellent.

Jacobs, Jane
Cities and the Wealth of Nations: Principles of Economic Life
(New York: Vantage Books, 1985, first published 1984)
A very interesting consideration of how city economies drive national economies and why some cities fare better than others. Possibly flawed but well worth reading.

Jacobs, Jane
The Nature of Economies
(Toronto: Random House Canada, 2000)
"A highly original look at the connection between economy and nature by one of the most influential thinkers of the twentieth century." So says the blurb.

Jackson, Kenneth T.
Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1985)
Examines the genesis of the modern North American suburb. Jackson's son was tragically killed in a car crash two weeks before the book went to press.

Kashin, Seymour and Harre Demoro
An American Original: The PCC Car
(Glendale, California: Interurban Press, 1986)
More than you ever wanted to know about the PCC streetcar, which remains to this day one of best rail vehicles ever designed. Out of print and very hard to find; I got my copy from, a useful source of out-of-print books.

Katz, Peter
The New Urbanism: Toward an Architecture of Community
(New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994)
An excellent discussion of the concepts of the new urbanism, with copious, well-illustrated examples. A lavish coffee-table book that is also a highly useful sourcebook.

Kay, Jane Holtz
Asphalt Nation: How the Automobile Took over America
and How We Can Take It Back
(New York: Crown Publishers, 1997; paperback edition: Berkeley:
University of California Press, 1998)
Thorough review of almost all the problems caused by cars. See the following reviews: review one, review two, review three.

Kay, Jane Holtz
Lost Boston
(Houghton Mifflin Company, 2000)
Revised and expanded edition of Kay's 1980 book. A treasure filled with historic photographs of remarkable quality, the books offers a rich examination of Boston's architectural history. Briefly reviewed in Carfree Times #16.

Kelbaugh, Doug (ed)
The Pedestrian Pocket Book
(New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1989)

Kostof, Spiro
The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History
(London: Thames and Hudson, 1991)
The title says it all. This book and its companion, below, were lavishly and beautifully produced by Thames and Hudson.

Kostof, Spiro
The City Assembled: The Elements of Urban Form Through History
(London: Thames and Hudson, 1992)
See above.

Kraus, George
High Road to Promontory: Building the Central Pacific
Across the High Sierra

(Palo Alto, CA: American West Publishing Co., 1969)
Excellent if brief account of the building of the Central Pacific railroad from Sacramento to Promontory Point, Utah. Very well illustrated. Reviewed in Carfree Times #21.

Krier, Léon
(London: Academy, 1984)

Krier, Léon
New Classicism
(London: Academy, 1990)

Krier, Léon
Architecture: Choice or Fate
(Andreas Papadakis Publisher, 1987)
This beautifully produced large-format book was written by Léon Krier, one of the few modern architects who is not scared to make use of our vast architectural heritage. He understands what makes outdoor spaces work. Released as a new edition (2009) bearing the title The Architecture of Community. Capsule review in Carfree Times #8.

Krier, Rob
Urban Spaces
(New York: Rizzoli, 1979)
An exhaustive examination of possible street and square arrangements.

Krier, Rob
Town Spaces: Contemporary Interpretations in Traditional Urbanism
(Birkhauser, 2003)
Rob Krier is one of the most original thinkers in architecture and city design today, and his work is, in my experience, always enlightening. The book is very richly illustrated and carefully prepared.

Kunstler, James Howard
The Long Emergency: Surviving the Converging Catastrophes of the Twenty-first Century
(Atlantic Monthly Press, 2005)
Kunstler muses on the post-oil fate of mankind. Briefly mentioned in Carfree Times #39.

Kunstler, James Howard
The City in Mind: Notes on the Urban Condition
(Free Press, 2002)
Analyzes eight cities, how they came to be the way they are, and what their prospects are for the future. Gives fascinating insights and provokes considerable thought. Reviewed in Carfree Times #26.

Kunstler, James Howard
Home From Nowhere
(Simon & Schuster, 1996)
Home From Nowhere continues the arguments set forth in The Geography of Nowhere, this time with an emphasis on remedies, in particular the restoration of traditional civic design. Includes doses of entertaining cultural criticism and an assault on the national automobile mania. Reviewed in Car-Free Times #3.

Kunstler, James Howard
The Geography of Nowhere
(Simon & Schuster / Touchstone Paperbacks, 1993)
The Geography of Nowhere is a hard-hitting and sometimes riotous examinations of the mess that Americans have made out of their everyday environment. Articulates what many Americans are struggling to understand about the degradation of their landscapes and townscapes.

Kushner, James A.
Comparative Urban Planning Law: An Introduction to Urban Land Development Law in the United States through the Lens of Comparing the Experience of Other Nations
(Carolina Academic Press, 2003)
The author, a well-known professor of law, has compiled a large work on this complex subject. The treatment is extensive and thorough, and draws on the experience of many nations. If this is your subject, you will need this book.

Kushner, James A.
The Post-Automobile City: Legal Mechanisms to Establish the Pedestrian-Friendly City
(Carolina Academic Press, 2004)
Explores legal strategies for developing the carfree city.

Kushner, James A.
Healthy Cities: The Intersection of Urban Planning, Law, and Health
(Carolina Academic Press, 2007)
Effects of planning law and urban design on the cost and delivery of health care.

Larkin, Jack
Where We Lived: Discovering the Places We Once Called Home
(Taunton Press, 2006)
Excellent review of traditional American buildings. Uses 1930s-era photographs to recapture a vanished USA.

Lennard, Suzanne H. Crowhurst, Sven von Ungern-Sternberg, and Henry L. Lennard (eds.)
Making Cities Livable
(Carmel, CA: Gondolier Press, 1997)

Lewenz, Claude
How to Build a Village
(New Zealand: Jackson House Publishing Company, 2007) Briefly reviewed in Carfree Times #56.

Lewis, David and Fred Laurence Williams
Policy and Planning as Public Choice: Mass transit in the United States
(Aldershot, UK: Ashgate, 1999)
Highly technical examination of a number of issues relating to public transport, particularly questions of subsidy rates. Briefly reviewed in Carfree Times #21.

Lowe, Marcia D.
Alternatives to the Automobile: Transport for Livable Cities
Worldwatch Paper 98, October 1990 (Worldwatch Institute).

Lowe, Marcia D.
Shaping Cities: The Environmental and Human Dimensions
Worldwatch Paper 105, October 1991 (Worldwatch Institute).

Lowe, Marcia D.
Back on Track: The Global Rail Revival
Worldwatch Paper 118, April 1994 (Worldwatch Institute).

Lynch, Kevin and Gary Hack
Site Planning
(Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. 1988)
This is the standard work on site planning. Large and comprehensive and full of useful numbers. The companion work on urban planning has not yet been written and is sorely needed.

Lynch, Kevin
The Image of the City
(Cambridge: MIT Press, 1960)

Lynch, Kevin
Managing the Sense of a Region
(Cambridge: MIT Press, 1976)

Macaulay, David
City: A story of Roman Planning and Construction
[pub data not at hand]
This is intended as a children's book, but it is an excellent and well-illustrated explanation of the form and construction of Roman cities.

Marshall, Stephen
Streets and Patterns
(London: Spon Press, 2005)

McCamant, Kathryn and Charles Durrett
Cohousing: A Contemporary Approach to Housing Ourselves
(Berkeley: Habitat Press, 1988)
The best source book of which I am aware on the subject of cohousing, an arrangement that lies between private dwellings and communal life. Each family has its own private space but the community has its own shared spaces, usually including a kitchen and dining room where meals are taken together several times a week. Not intrinsically car-free but highly susceptible to greatly reduced car usage. Full of case examples and plans.

McShane, Clay
Down the Asphalt Path: The Automobile and the American City
(New York: Columbia University Press, 1994)
The automobile was initially rejected almost everywhere it first appeared, but by 1910 the world was ready to accept it, warts and all. Complements Goddard's book (see above).

Mees, Paul
A Very Public Solution: Transport in the Dispersed City
(Melbourne University Press, 2000)
Has as its thesis that public transport in low-density cities can be quite good. Melbourne and Toronto are taken as contrasting case examples. (European orders from: Eurospan, 3 Henrietta St., Convent Garden, London WC2E 8LU) Reviewed in Carfree Times #17.

Moe, Richard and Carter Wilkie
Changing Places: Rebuilding Community in the Age of Sprawl
(New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1997)
Considers why historic preservation has become such a hot issue, now that most great urban landscapes in the USA have been destroyed.

Morris, A.E.J.
History of Urban Form: Prehistory to the Renaissance
(New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1972)

Moughtin, Cliff
Urban Design: Street and Square
(Architectural Press, 2003)
The book considers basic design concepts and various design elements, in particular streets, squares, and waterways. The discussion continues with chapters on sustainable urban form, visual analysis, and some interesting case studies.

Newman, Peter and Jeffrey Kenworthy
Sustainability and Cities: Overcoming Automobile Dependence
(Washington: Island Press, 1999)
Dense source book, full of tables and graphs. Essential for serious students.

Oliver, Paul
Dwellings: The Vernacular House World Wide
(London: Phaidon Press, 2003)

Olsen, Donald J.
The City as a Work of Art
(London, Paris, Vienna. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986)

Palladio, Andrea
The Four Books of Architecture
[pub data not at hand]

Papadakis, Andreas, and Harriet Watson
New Classicism: Omnibus Volume
[pub data not at hand]

Peirce, Neal R.
Citystates: How Urban America Can Prosper in a Competitive World
(Washington: Seven Locks Press, 1993)
Columnist Neal Peirce examines six American cities from the perspective of their degree of local integration and cooperation. His thesis: those cities with effective systems to encourage regional cooperation fare much better than metropolitan areas that lack this component.

Pevsner, Nikolaus
The Sources of Modern Architecture and Design
(London: Thames and Hudson, 1968)

Pirenne, Henri
Medieval Cities: Their Origins and the Revival of Trade
(Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1925, paperback edition of 1969)

Project for Public Spaces
How to Turn a Place Around: A Handbook for Creating
Successful Public Spaces

A practical guide for those trying to fix public spaces that don't work. Reviewed in Carfree Times #21.

Pucher, John and Christian Lefèvre
The Urban Transport Crisis in Europe and North America
(London: Macmillan, 1996)
A largely statistical analysis of transport issues, especially with respect to cars. Dry but useful.

Register, Richard
Ecocities: Building Cities in Balance with Nature
(Berkeley: Berkeley Hills Books, 2002)
Further develops the ideas Register developed in his 1987 book, with a general focus instead of using Berkeley as the principal example.

Register, Richard
Ecocity Berkeley: Building Cities for a Healthy Future
(Berkeley: North Atlantic Books, 1987)
Imaginative musings on approaches to building an ecologically-balanced pattern of habitation in Berkeley.

Reid, Richard
The Book of Buildings: Ancient, Medieval, Renaissance & Modern Architecture of North America & Europe
(New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 1983)
An excellent summary of the Occidental architectural heritage and a fine source of ideas.

Richards, Brian
Future Transport in Cities
(London: Spon Press, 2001)
A strong focus on forthcoming developments, as might be expected from the title, but the book begins with an analysis of contemporary transport problems. A short section on carfree development concludes: "It is too early to say if car-free housing will become standard practice but there seems to be a strong case that it should be considered in new development areas where public transport is good."

Richards, Brian
New Movement in Cities
(London: Studio Vista, second edition, 1969)
Richards developed some ideas that point the way toward the carfree city, although it was not his intention that these ideas would lead to carfree cities.

Rogers, Richard
Cities for a Small Planet
(London: Faber & Faber, 1997)
The final part of the book delves into the quandary we face today: ecological problems, swelling populations, and the need to build decent cities that are less of a burden on the environment and a better place to spend time. The book closes with a manifesto for the sustainable city. Capsule review in Carfree Times #8.

Rogers, Richard
Cities for a Small Country
(London: Faber & Faber, 2000)
This is really an update on the earlier Cities for a Small Planet, but is more strongly slanted to the home market (i.e., Britain). Rogers is quite anti-auto but hasn't yet made the final leap to large-scale carfree urban areas. Reviewed in Carfree Times #22.

Rudofsky, Bernard
Streets for People: A Primer for Americans
[pub data not at hand]
Rudofsky attempted to explain to Americans why European street arrangements were more favorable for society than the prevailing US arrangements. Well illustrated and an excellent source.

Safdie, Moshe
The City After the Automobile: An Architect's Vision
(Basic Books, 1997)
Safdie's vision of cities of the future is technologically centered and does not seem very workable. The ideas are interesting, however. Reviewed in Carfree Times #3.

Salingaros, Nikos A., with others
Anti-Architecture and Deconstruction
(Umbau-Verlag, 2004)
A stinging attack on the pseudo-intellectualism behind Modernism and the Deconstructivist movements.

Salingaros, Nikos A.
Principles of Urban Structure
(Delft: Techne, 2005)
Uban structure analyzed with mathematical rigor.

Salingaros, Nikos A.
"Connecting the Fractal City"
(Keynote speech, 5th Biennial of towns and town planners in Europe, Barcelona, April 2003)
PDF from:

Schaeffer, K.H. and Elliot Sclar
Access for All: Transportation and Urban Growth
(New York: Columbia University Press, 1980)
The evolution of cities under the influence of transport innovations. Focuses on Boston.

Semlyen, Anna
Cutting Your Car Use: Save Money, Be Healthy, Be Green!
(Foxhole, Bartington Totnes, Devon, UK: Green Books, 2000)
A practical guide to reducing car usage, from a UK perspective. Briefly reviewed in Carfree Times #16.

Shoup, Donald
The High Cost of Free Parking
(Chicago: American Planning Association, 2005)
There's no such thing as free lunch. Or free parking. Reviewed in Carfree Times #40.

Siegel, Charles
An Architecture For Our Time: The New Classicism
(Preservation Institute, 2008)
Pleads the case for a return to classical architecture.

Siegel, Charles
Unplanning: Livable Cities and Political Choices
(Preservation Institute, 2010)

Sitte, Camillo
City Planning According to Artistic Principles
(New York: Random House, 1965; first edition [German]: Vienna, 1889. Translated by George R. Collins and Christiane Crasemann Collins)
Sometimes hard to find and expensive, but a gold mine. Full of drawings and fascinating explanations of why some urban areas are attractive and others are not. Most of the places that Sitte criticized little more than a century ago are today regarded as architectural treasures. It’s not that these old areas have improved, it’s that the newer areas are so much worse. Essential.

Smith, Thomas Gordon
Vitruvius on Architecture
(Monacelli Press, 2003)
A new look at the Vitruvius work.

Southworth, Michael and Eran Ben-Joseph
Streets and the Shaping of Towns and Cities
(New York: McGraw-Hill, 1997)
Includes a historical review.

Steen, Athena, Bill Steen, and Eiko Komatsu
Built by Hand: Vernacular Architecture Around the World
(Gibbs Smith, Publisher, 2003)
A thorough (and beautiful) review of a very wide range of vernacular communities, buildings, and details.

Taylor, John S.
Commonsense Architecture
(New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1983)
A handwritten and illustrated book depicting and briefly describing hundreds of traditional patterns of building which have met particular needs around the world. An excellent idea source.

Toor, Will and Spenser W. Havlick
Transportation and Sustainable Campus Communities: Issues, Examples, Solutions
(Washington: Island Press, 2004)
Reducing car use on university campuses.

Unwin, Raymond
Town Planning in Practice: An Introduction to the Art of Designing Cities and Suburbs
(London: T. Fisher Unwin, revised edition, 1911; Princeton Architectural Press facsimile edition of 1994)

Urban Design Associates
The Architectural Pattern Book: A Tool for Building Great Neighborhoods
(New York: W.W. Norton, 2004)

Uytenhaak, Rudy
Cities Full of Space: Qualities of Density
(Rotterdam: 010 Press, 2008)

Van der Ryn, Sim and Peter Calthorpe
Sustainable Communities: A New Design Synthesis for
Cities, Towns, and Suburbs

(San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1986)
An early work in the sustainable development effort. Deserved a better printing.

Van Lengen, Johan
The Barefoot Architect
(Bolinas, CA: Shelter Publications, 2008)

Vasconcellos, Eduardo A.
Urban Transport, Environment and Equity:
The case for developing countries

(London: Earthscan, 2001)
Excellent analysis of transport and environmental policy in the developing nations.
Reviewed in Carfree Times #26.

(New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., frequently revised)
Probably the best modern guide to Venice.

Venice & the Veneto
(London: Dorling Kindersley, frequently revised)
Useful guide to Venice and environs; not quite up to the standards of the Knopf Guide, but a worthwhile adjunct.

Vitruvius (Morris Hicky Morgan, trans.)
The Ten Books on Architecture
(New York: Dover Publications, 1914, 1960, first edition in Roman times)
One of the first books on architecture.

Wagner, Martin
The Little Driver
(Pinter & Martin UK, 2003)
This children's book tells the story of an eight-year-old boy who gets a car one day. At first he enjoys driving around, but as he meets people and starts to understand the problems that cars are causing, he begins to question whether cars are really such a good idea after all.

Walljasper, Jay
The Great Neighborhood Book: A Do-it-Yourself Guide to Placemaking
(Project for Public Spaces, 2007)
Explains how any community can be improved and enlivened, not by vast infusions of cash, not by government, but by the people who live there.

Warren, Roxanne
The Urban Oasis: Guideways and Greenways in the Human Environment
(New York: McGraw-Hill, 1998)
Probably the most thorough treatment of people movers and their application in urban development.

Wasik, John F.
The Cul-de-Sac Syndrome
(New York: Bloomberg Press, 2009)

Watson, Donald, Alan Plattus, and Robert G. Shibley (eds).
Time-Saver Standards for Urban Design
(New York: McGraw-Hill, 2003)

Wehner, Stephan, Ed.
Traffic Life Passionate Tales and Exit Strategies
(Wandering Soliton Publications, 2004)
Anthology on the pains of traffic and the absurdities of the prevailing car culture.

Weizäcker, Ernst von, Amory B. Lovins, and L. Hunter Lovins
Factor Four: Doubling Wealth, Halving Resource Use
(Earthscan Publications Ltd., 1997)
Flawed but very useful first cut at solvilng the problem of dramatically reducing resource consumption while improving quality of life. Until something better comes along, you need to read this. Reviewed in Carfree Times #22.

Whitelegg, John and Gary Haq, Eds.
The Earthscan Reader on World Transport Policy and Practice
(Earthscan, 2003)
This book focuses on the conflicts between environmental damage, the quality of life, social justice, and public policy. Transport policies have generally settled heavy burdens on the world's poor, and the book examines how policy has failed to protect them and to promote social justice. The work presents creative approaches to global transport policy and suggests practical approaches to achieving a transport system that is less dependent on cars, trucks, and aircraft. It includes multi-disciplinary assessments of transport planning, engineering, and economics.

Whittick, Arnold
Encyclopedia of urban planning
(McGraw-Hill, 1974)
Old but still very useful.

Whyte, William H.
City: Rediscovering the Center
(New York: Anchor Books, 1988)
Whyte, a long-time observer of New York life, offers a rich lode.

Whyte, William H.
The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces
(Washington DC: The Conservation Foundation, 1980)

Williams, Heathcote
(New York: Arcade Publishing, [n.d., probably 1991])
Excellent and appalling look at the ravages of cars.

Williams, John Hoyt
A Great and Shining Road: The Epic Story of
the Transcontinental Railroad

(Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1988)
A reasonably short book on the Pacific Railroad that does an excellent job of putting this remarkable story into the context of the times. Reviewed in Carfree Times #20.

Wilson, David Gordon
Bicycling Science
(MIT Press, 2004)
Excellent text on the science of bicycling.

Wolfe, Tom
From Bauhaus to Our House
(New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1981)
Tom Wolfe at his best as he deftly destroys Modern architecture in just 143 pages.

Wölfflin, Heinrich
Renaissance and Baroque
(Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1966)
Translated by Kathrin Simon

Wycherley, R.E.
How the Greeks Built Cities
(New York: W.W. Norton, 1962, second edition, 1976)

Zielinski, Sue & Gordon Laird, eds.
Beyond the Car: Essays on the Auto Culture
(Toronto: Steel Rail Publishing/Transportation Options, 1995).

Zucker, Paul
Town and Square: From the Agora to the Village Green
(New York: Columbia University Press, 1959.)

Zuckermann, Wolfgang
End of the Road: From World Car Crisis to Sustainable Transportation
(Post Mills, Vermont, USA: Chelsea Green Publishing Company, 1991)
Wolfgang Zuckermann has written an interesting and useful compendium of most of what is known about reducing automobile usage. The book is divided into two parts: the world car crisis, and techniques that can be used to improve the situation. The techniques mostly fall under the rubric of "traffic calming," and each includes a careful consideration of the unintended side-effects of that technique. Depressing, because nothing really seems to work very well. Indirectly, the book makes a strong case for the need for carfree cities. Reviewed in Carfree Times #4.

Zuckermann, Wolfgang
Alice in Underland
(Avignon: The Olive Press, 2000)
Take off on Alice in Wonderland, set in contemporary America. Reviewed in Carfree Times #21.


Economic Impact of Public Transportation Investment [PDF!]

Crawford, J.H. "Carfree Cities: A Blueprint for Sustainability" in World Architecture Review 2000:01 (no. 70).

Rabinovitch, Jonas and Josef Leitman
"Urban Planning in Curitiba" in: Scientific American, vol. 274 nr. 3 (March 1996), pp. 26-33.
An interesting article about a cheaper means of achieving some of the carfree design goals. The Curitiba approach has allowed urban buses to function quite well. The basic city structure is generally compatible with the proposals made here, although Curitiba is by no means carfree.

Scientific American, "Special Report: Preventing the Next Oil Crunch," March 1998.

Scientific American, "The Future of Transportation" (Special Issue), October 1997.
Includes articles on the technical future of cars.

Vermeer, Bram
"Zachtjes sporen," NRC Handelsblad, 20 December 1997
Reports on the application of a thin layer of cobalt to train wheels. The cobalt apparently preserves the perfect roundness of the wheels and greatly reduces train noise.

Where We Want To Be: Home Location Preferences And Their Implications For Smart Growth[PDF!]


New Urban Cowboy: The Labors of Michael E. Arth
Golden Apples Media Inc.
99 minutes

The Myths of Biofuels
Sutro Tower Video
89 minutes


La Planète a besoin de nous
Encyclopé interactive de l'environnement
In French, of course.

Car Free Cities Initiative, 2000
The Launch of the European Car Free Day

Ecolo, 1999
CarSharing in Europe
CD with detailed information on all aspects of carsharing


I've collected hundreds of old postcards showing what cities looked like about a century ago, before cars had afflicted the urban landscape.

Suggest additions to this list of sources.

Go to Papers
Return Home
About the book: Carfree Cities

Copyright ©1996-2004 J. Crawford